The Big C: Cancer–The Disease in a Nutshell

Cancer is arguably the most feared disease in the Western world.  In America, cancer is the leading cause of death of people between 35-65 years of age.  Nearly 1 in 7 deaths worldwide in 2007 was due to cancer.  Cancer rates are exploding throughout the world as developing nations industrialize and eat diets that are less nutritious (think of pollution and McDonald’s).  Because of physiological and social reasons, gynecological cancers are some of the most lethal types of cancer in women.  To better understand gynecological cancers, let’s take a step back and get to grips with the basics of cancer.

Cancer is a disease affecting humans, and other animals, that is a result of abnormal cells growing out of control.  Cancer can happen in virtually any part of the body and there are more than 100 distinct types.  The cells in our bodies are continually regenerating.  There is a saying that our bodies completely regenerate every seven years.  (In fact, each type of cell–each part of the body– regenerates at a different pace.)  When our bodies dictate the script (DNA being the script) that causes cell reproduction, occasionally there is a typo.  Many different things (such as smoking) can cause a “typo.”  When this happens, the body has difficulty righting the mistake and it can grow out of control resulting in cancer as seen in this illustration:


The top half of the illustration is a process called apoptosis, by which a damaged cell is removed through programmed cell death.  (I jokingly think of apoptosis as telling a “bad cell” to “pop off.”)  A lack of apoptosis is when the damaged cells are not programmed out.  This is where cancer begins.

If this growth of abnormal cells is caught in an early stage, it usually can be treated easily by removing the growth.*  Stages are a means by which the cancerous growths can be classified by how far along it has progressed.  There are four main stages, and with specific types of cancers there are further subdivisions such as “Stage II-C.”  Usually by the time a cancerous growth has reached the fourth, most advanced stage it has undergone a process called metastasis.

Metastasis is when the cancer spreads from its primary site to other sites.  So, if you hear an official cancer diagnosis, it may sound something like, “metastatic breast cancer” or “metastatic cancer primary to the liver.”  This indicates where the cancer began and that it is present in other locations.  Metastasis usually occurs through the body’s lymphatic system.  That’s why one often hears about lymph nodes in relation to cancer.

There are innumerable ways in which cancer is diagnosed.  Once it is found and diagnosed, there is a great divergence between how cancer behaves and how it is best treated depending on the type of cancer, medical history, and other factors.  If you ever find yourself receiving a cancer diagnosis, you will need to create a very specific plan with your physicians–no two diagnoses are ever exactly identical.  Hopefully this brief overview of the Big C helps build your understanding of the disease if you ever find yourself in close contact with cancer.

*(In my case, I had a very slow-growing cancer.  So, even though it was not caught at all “early,” it was still in an early stage.)

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Herpes and Hepatitis B

Herpes and Hepatitis B are two sexually transmitted diseases that are often confused with one another because of their similar names.   The similarities end there.  What are the differences between the two?  And what are the symptoms, the causes, and the treatments?

The technical name for herpes is herpes simplex and it is caused by one of two viruses:  herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) or herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2).  (Pretty obvious names, right?)  HSV-1 causes oral sores commonly called cold sores (pictured below).  HSV-2 causes genital herpes, the dreaded sexually transmitted disease that about 1 in 7 adults in the United States currently have.  Herpes goes through cycles of being active and inactive (when sores are present or not present).  Genital herpes can be spread during both the active and inactive cycles, even when being treated.  Herpes has no cure and will last a lifetime if contracted.


Herpes is not a fatal disease (though it can be if passed between a mother and baby during childbirth) but it can be quite annoying and embarrassing.  There are treatments to help moderate the disease, but it is important to remember that herpes can always be spread even when it is in an inactive stage.  The treatments for herpes are anti-viral and the best choice for you can be determined by your physician.  There is currently no vaccination to prevent herpes, but there may be in the future.

Herpes is a disease that is quite easy to detect visually, unlike that other H-disease hepatitis B.  Hepatitis B (often shortened to hep-b) is also caused by a virus, called hepatitis B virus (HBV; pictured below).  Hep-b is a disease that affects a staggering number of people.  Over 2 billion people are believed to have the disease.  It is spread by the transmission of bodily fluids (notably through blood transfusions and sexual acts, as well as other ways).

Hepatitis B affects the liver by causing acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) inflammation.  This can result in jaundice, cirrhosis, and sometimes liver cancer.  The earliest symptoms, preceding these maladies, can include nausea, vomiting, body aches, mild fever, and darker than usual urine.  These can be mistaken for other illnesses if testing is not carried out.  These early symptoms often go away on their own but the disease may still be present allowing for more damage to the liver and for it to be spread to others.

So, it is crucial to visit a physician in order to have a test (usually a blood test) performed to determine the exact nature of your illness.  Hep-b very often clears on its own in those who suffer from the acute version.  However, the acute version may develop into a longer course of chronic hep-b.  If this occurs, it can cause serious damage to the liver and may even result in death.  Young adults, children, and infants are much more likely to develop chronic hepatitis B from the acute disease.  Though a virus cannot be totally cured through medication, it can be slowed and inhibited from causing more damage.

Hep-b is a disease that can be protected against.  The best means of protection is by receiving the vaccination against it.  This offers long-term protection.  As in any sexual situation, it is always best to be as careful as possible and in this case a condom will greatly lower the risk of spreading the disease.

So, to sum up, herpes is associated with genital sores, is generally not fatal, and can never be cured.  Hepatitis B has few outward symptoms, can be fatal if not monitored, and can only be cured by the body’s natural virus-fighting processes.  So, if you’re worried at all about either of these diseases, please visit a doctor who can make sure that your issues are carefully dealt with.  Your and your sexual partner’s health rely on it.